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How close to the surface is it possible to measure with ultrasonic pulse-echo technology?

While this is being improved all the time it is possible to give a reference for this. A major study was carried out in Germany that deals with this topic. Here it was shown that 16 mm rebars could be detected with a minimum cover of 20mm. The reference to the paper is shown below.

Detection of near-surface reinforcement in concrete components with ultrasound
Sarah Vonk1,*, and Alexander Taffe1
1HTW Berlin – University of Applied Sciences Berlin, Nondestructive Testing in Civil Engineering Department, 12459 Berlin

Link to paper

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